Roberta Lanzi1, Cristina Gramaccia2, Giulia Menculini1, Patrizia Moretti1, Tiziana Sciarma1, Andrea Raballo1 and Alfonso Tortorella1*
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy 2School of Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, ItalyFulltext PDF
Personality Disorder (PD) is an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectation of the individual’s culture. It is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, it’s stable over time and leads to distress or impairment. According to a systematic review, the worldwide pooled prevalence of any PD is 7.8% (95% CI: 6.1-9.5) and rates are greater in high-income countries (9.6%, 95% CI: 7.9-11.3) compared with lowand middle-income countries (4.3%, 95% CI: 2.6-6.1). Global rates of cluster A, B and C PD are 3.8% (95% CI: 3.2-4.4), 2.8% (1.6, 3.7%) and 5.0% (4.2, 5.9%). The aim of this narrative review is to reconstruct the evolution of the concept of Personality and Personality Disorders from their origins to nowadays controversies regarding categorical versus dimensional models.
Personality disorders; Categorical model; Dimensional model; AMPD
Lanzi R, Gramaccia C, Menculini G, Moretti P, Sciarma T, Raballo A, et al. Personality Disorders: Concepts, Constructs and Nosography. World J Psychiatry Ment Health Res. 2021; 5(1): 1026..