Neurol Disord Stroke Int | Volume 1, Issue 2 | Research Article | Open Access

Biphasic Blood-Brain Barrier Openings after Stroke

Emily A Hone1,2, Heng Hu3,5, Samuel A Sprowls4, Imran Farooqi1,2, Kimberly Grasmick1,2, Paul R Lockman4, James W Simpkins3,4 and Xuefang Ren1,2,5*

1Department of Neuroscience, West Virginia University, USA
2Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University, USA
3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University, USA
4Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, USA
5Experimental Stroke Core, Center for Basic and Translational Stroke Research, West Virginia University, USA

*Correspondance to: Xuefang Ren 

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Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) dysfunction results in post-stroke brain edema through influx of solutes, immune cells, and blood; however, the time-course of BBB permeability post-stroke remains controversial. Currently, treatments after stroke are time-specific, with little opportunity for effective treatments if the short time-window passes. To investigate BBB permeability after stroke, C57/BL6 male mice was undergone 1 hour transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (tMCAO); Evans blue and fluorescein extravasation were used as indicators of BBB permeability in this study. Brains were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and Cresyl violet to determine infarction. We observed that the BBB exhibits biphasic openings-once at 6 hours and once at 72 hours, and brain damage was observed from 6 hours to 72 hours. This novel study demonstrates that post-stroke brain damage is progressive, yet BBB exhibits biphasic openings. Through evaluation of post-stroke mechanisms, the BBB permeability is important to reveal a potential therapeutic window for stroke victims.


Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB); Stroke; Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (tMCAO); Evans blue; Fluorescein


Hone EA, Hu H, Sprowls SA, Farooqi I, Grasmick K, Lockman PR, et al. Biphasic Blood-Brain Barrier Openings after Stroke. Neurol Disord Stroke Int. 2018; 1(2): 1011.

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