Robert I Henkin* and Mona Abdelmeguid
Center for Molecular Nutrition and Sensory Disorders, USAFulltext PDF
There are presently no quantitative clinical markers which can consistently identify patients after Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). In 90 patients with TBI we measured smell function (by olfactometry), taste function (by gustometry), sensory distortions by subjective responses, quantitated these results and compared them to findings in normal subjects to determine if abnormalities of these functions might serve as these markers. All patients complained of smell and taste loss. Losses occurred rapidly after TBI and persisted. By tests, patient ability to smell or taste was significantly impaired; sensory distortions were also present. However, by test 71 patients with smell loss (83%) could recognize most odors and 77 (86%) could recognize most tastants. Twenty-three (26%) exhibited sensory distortions. Smell and taste function were subjectively impaired after TBI and abnormalities in smell and taste were consistently measured. Impairments occurred rapidly after TBI and were their longest lasting pathological findings. Smell and taste impairments are common events after TBI and are quantitative markers which identify these patients. Although smell and taste function were subjectively impaired, They were measured in patients to some degree by use of olfactometry and gustometry. Results are consistent with the presence of smell and taste dysfunction but are inconsistent with dogma that patients exhibit anosmia, a total loss of smell function after TBI, which has been hypothesized to occur following severing of the fila olfactoria from the cribriform plate. Results are consistent with as yet not clearly defined functional biochemical/metabolic causes of these sensory changes.
Traumatic brain injury; Smell loss; Taste loss; Hyposmia; Hypogeusia; Disease marker
Henkin RI, Abdelmeguid M. Smell and Taste Dysfunction are Markers of Early and Persistent Pathology Following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). J Neurosci Cogn Stud. 2018; 2(1): 1007.