J Heart Stroke | Volume 3, Issue 1 | Review Article | Open Access

Metabolic Syndrome: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology

Nilendra Singh* and Scmhrd

Department of Microbiology, Maharshi Dayanand University, India

*Correspondance to: Nilendra Singh 

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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders and diagnosed with increased blood pressure, raised blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels. These metabolic disorders collectively or independently, increases the risk of an individual for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus, and vascular or neurological complications. Multiple definition of MetS has been proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the World Health Organization (WHO). All international agencies focus on majorly five medical conditions, which are also used as diagnosis guidelines by health practitioner, viz.abdominal obesity/ waist circumference, high blood pressure, abnormal high fasting plasma glucose, elevated serum triglycerides and low HDL. Major risk factor for MetS - are obesity, physical inactivity, atherogenic diet; smoking, hypertension, elevated LDL/low HDL cholesterol, family history of premature coronary heart disease, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, stress and pro-inflammatory state. The existence of MetS confers an additional risk for CVD. The more components of risk factors cause high CVD risk and mortality. According to National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, “a person with metabolic syndrome is twice as likely to develop heart disease and five times as likely to develop diabetes as someone without metabolic syndrome. Lifestyle change and weight loss are considered as primary target of intervention for MetS; followed by secondary intervention which includes medication to treat existing risk factors like blood pressure, lipids, and blood glucose levels.


Singh N, Scmhrd. Metabolic Syndrome: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology. J Heart Stroke. 2018; 3(1): 1044.

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