Qoot Alkhubaizi1*, John David Sorkin2,4, Marc C Hochberg3,5 and Sharon M Gordon6
1Department of General Dental Practice, Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University, Kuwait
2Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Baltimore VA Medical Center, Baltimore, USA
3Medical Care Clinical Center, VA Maryland Health Care System, Baltimore, USA
4Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA
5Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA 6Department of Foundational Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, USA
Aims: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is believed to be co-morbid with rheumatologic conditions such as Osteoarthritis (OA). We determine 30-day prevalence and cumulative incidence, and risk factors for facial pain in a cohort of subjects who either had or were at risk of developing symptomatic radiographic knee osteoarthritis (SRKOA).
Methods: Poisson regression models examined whether age, sex, race, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) score, number of painful joints, and presence of SRKOA were risk factors for facial pain in 4,423 subjects at baseline and in 3,472 subjects at 24 and/or 48 months follow-up.
Results: At baseline, 30-day period prevalence of facial pain was 9.25%; and 30-day cumulative incidence at 24-months and at 48-months was 5.9% and 4.9%, respectively. Factors associated with prevalence and incidence of facial pain were: younger age, female sex, (CES-D) score, and a larger number of painful joints. For each increase in age of one year, the incidence of facial pain decreased by 1%. Women had a 96% higher incidence than men, and each unit increase of (CES-D) score was associated with a 2% increase in the incidence of facial pain. For every additional painful joint, there was a 21% increase in the incidence of facial pain. Subjects with SRKOA had a 33% increase in the incidence of facial pain compared to those with risk factors for SRKOA.
Conclusion: OA and TMD share several risk factors. The risk factors identified in cross-sectional analysis of prevalence are similar to those identified in longitudinal analysis on incidence.
Pain; Epidemiology; Temporomandibular disorder (TMD); Joint disease; Facial pain
Alkhubaizi Q, Sorkin JD, Hochberg MC, Gordon SM. Risk Factors for Facial Pain: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative Study. J Dent Oral Biol. 2017; 2(3): 1033.