Ann Vasc Med | Volume 2, Issue 1 | Review Article | Open Access

Role of Transcription Factors in Regulating Development and Progression of Atherosclerosis

Vikrant Rai1, Gopal P Jadhav2 and Chandra S Boosani2*

1Department of Biomedical Science, Creighton University School of Medicine, USA
2Department of Clinical and Translational Science, Creighton University School of Medicine, USA

*Correspondance to: Chandra S Boosani 

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Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vasculature that results in hardening of the vessel wall and narrowed lumen. Development of the atherosclerotic plaque starts from the deposition of the lipids in the fatty streak followed by its progression to atheroma, atheromatous plaque, and fibroatheroma. Diabetes mellitus (hyperglycemia), hypertension, smoking, obesity (hypercholesterolemia, dyslipidemia), male sex, family history of atherosclerosis, or genetic susceptibility are the risk factors for atherosclerosis. Chronic inflammation, immune cells infiltration, a bacterial or viral infection of the plaque, intraplaque hemorrhage, and endothelial and vascular smooth muscle dys regulation renders a stable plaque (rich in VSMC and collagen with few inflammatory cells) unstable (few VSMCs, more macrophages, and less collagen) which are prone to rupture. The role of various mediators of inflammation (damage associated molecular proteins), pro inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, -6, -8, tumor necrosis factor-α etc.), and surface receptors (triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cell 1, Toll-like receptors, receptor for glycation end products etc.) in the pathogenesis of plaque development and rupture has been discussed in the literature. The mechanistic aspects of plaque progression have been discussed mainly at the protein level. The epigenetic regulation of atherosclerosis is a current area of interest to researchers. However, regulation of the development, progression, and rupture of the atherosclerotic plaque at the transcriptional level has not been studied in detail. This review emphasizes the role of transcription factors associated with atherosclerotic plaque progression and rupture.


Rai V, Jadhav GP, Boosani CS. Role of Transcription Factors in Regulating Development and Progression of Atherosclerosis. Ann Vasc Med. 2019;2(1):1007.

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