Ann Psychiatr Clin Neurosci | Volume 5, Issue 1 | Research Article | Open Access

Persea americana Peel and Seed Extracts Exert Neuroprotective Effects against 3-Nitropropionic Acid Induced Neurotoxicity in Male Wistar Rats

Salami Y, Ebuehi OAT*, Imaga NOA, Mojekwu CNA and Nwokporo BN

Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria

*Correspondance to: Ebuehi OAT 

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The relative frequency of occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases has risen dramatically with greater than ten million people suffering from neurodegenerative diseases annually. Medications for neurodegenerative diseases are limited and aim to treat the symptoms only, and none to prevent the continued loss of neurons observed in neurodegenerative diseases. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. P. americana is supposed to have neuroprotective properties due to its reported antioxidant properties. This present study was designed to determine the phytochemical composition, antioxidant and neuroprotective effects P. americana extracts upon 3-NP induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals, as well as antioxidant activity of P. americana, were determined. The neuroprotective effect of P. americana against 3-NP induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration were determined. Adult male Wistar rats were administered with 3-NP (10 mg/ kg b.w. i.p.) and co-treated with P. americana peel and seed extracts both at two doses (300 and 600 mg/kg b.w. p.o) for 14 days. At the end of the treatment schedule, the rats were evaluated for behavioral alterations and brain striatum homogenates were used for the estimation of oxidative stress parameters (lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and reduced glutathione) and catecholamine (dopamine and serotonin). The qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids tannin, terpenoids, and reducing sugar in the extracts of fruit parts. Saponin, alkaloids, steroids, cardiac glycoside, and anthraquinone were present only in some parts of the fruit. The flavonoid content (207.18 ± 10.45 to 447.36 ± 5.52 mg/100 mg) and phenolic content (17.45 ± 2.83 to 53.24 ± 3.42 mg/100 mg) correlated with the antioxidant activities of the fruits. Administration of 3-NP significantly altered the behavioral and neuronal antioxidant status and caused significant neuronal damage in the striatal region. Daily administration of P. americana peel and seed reversed these effects of 3-NP induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in the rats. Administration of the extracts of the seed and peel significantly (P<0.05) caused a reversal of behavioral and antioxidant status alterations and improved the catecholamine level depleted by the induced 3-NP. Therefore, the findings from this study suggest that the neuroprotective effects P. americana peel and seed extracts against 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity might be attributed to their antioxidant potential.


Persea americana; Neurotoxicity; Oxidative stress; Antioxidants, Neuroprotection


Salami Y, Ebuehi OAT, Imaga NOA, Mojekwu CNA, Nwokporo BN. Persea americana Peel and Seed Extracts Exert Neuroprotective Effects against 3-Nitropropionic Acid Induced Neurotoxicity in Male Wistar Rats. Ann Psychiatr Clin Neurosci. 2022; 5(1): 1044..

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