Ann Pharmacol Toxicol | Volume 1, Issue 1 | Review Article | Open Access

Antimicrobial Resistance and Second Wave of COVID-19: Will It Impose Management Protocols Deviation?

Raslan M, Eslam MS, Sara AR, Nagwa AS

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt Drug Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

*Correspondance to: Nagwa Ali Sabri 

Fulltext PDF


Antibiotics are widely used therapeutic agent in treatment of different infectious diseases either bacterial or fungal. Misuse of antibiotics and other social factors are of the main factor for emerging antibiotics resistant pathogenic stains. It was proven that the high mortality rates increased healthcare economical costs and reduced productivity are highly associated with antibiotic resistance. Currently, COVID-19 infection is at its first wave peak in some countries as American ones, at the same time an emerged second wave started in other countries as European countries which may last for further period of time globally. Investigations showed that healthcare systems are using antibiotics in management of all SARS-CoV-2 infections even if they are mild in symptoms although only 10% to 15% of the infected SARS-CoV-2 cases showed secondary bacterial infection due to difficulty in differentiation between viral and bacterial infection leading to antibiotic misuse. Besides, overwhelmed healthcare systems and lack of proper infection control measures are aggravating the emergence of antibiotic resistance, therefore, proper training for healthcare workers increased public awareness with infection prevention is an important contributing factor for diminishing emergence of antibiotic resistance and might impose protocol deviations in the next wave of COVID-19.


Covid-19; Covid; Corona Virus; Coronavirus disease 2019; COVID-19; Antimicrobial resistance; Secondary infection; ICUs; Azithromycin


Raslan M, Eslam MS, Sara AR, Nagwa AS. Antimicrobial Resistance and Second Wave of COVID-19: Will It Impose Management Protocols Deviation?. Ann Pharmacol Toxicol. 2020; 1(1): 1001..

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