Ann Pediatr Res | Volume 7, Issue 1 | Mini Review | Open Access

Malnutrition Approach to Diagnose, Neurological and Cognitive Sequel, Methods to Eradicate Nutrition Deprivation

Agarwal KN and Agarwal DK*

Department of Pediatrics, Institute Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, India

*Correspondance to: Agarwal DK 

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Malnutrition in India has been rampant; in women and children this affects growth, development and skilled work. In 1973-74, decided to study on: 1. Development of diagnostic tools to assess degree of malnutrition, using anthropometric indices on the nationwide data of affluent children <5 year and 5 to 18 year of age (physical growth & sexual development). In addition, methods were developed on blood and saliva. The fall in salivary ferritin was found sensitive in diagnosing early Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM). The fall of leukocyte FαAN and increase of glutamic acid in erythrocytes were also sensitive tests in PEM (Protein Energy Malnutrition). 2. Studies were undertaken in rural areas to determine sequel due to malnutrition-physical, neurological or cognitive lesions, possible pathology in intrauterine and early life malnutrition. 3. Developed treatment for acute protein energy malnutrition by dietary supplementation. Studies showed that Indian Dahi has immunonutrient properties i.e., Interleukin levels during treatment were much higher on WHO-Dahi as compared to WHO- milk diet after 15 days and 6 weeks. The absolute lymphocyte counts, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19 and CD56 increased in children receiving Dahi in WHO diet for 6 weeks. Firstly, Dahi may replace the milk in WHO diet for treatment of malnutrition. Secondly, on feeding Berseem (Trifolium alexandrium) leaves to PEM II & III, children also showed immunonutrient properties, thus may be added in commercial cereals and legumes to eradicate malnutrition.


Malnutrition; Sequel; Anthropometric indices; Leukocyte FαAN; Erythrocyte glutamic acid; Salivary ferritin; Dahi; Berseem leaves


Agarwal KN, Agarwal DK. Malnutrition Approach to Diagnose, Neurological and Cognitive Sequel, Methods to Eradicate Nutrition Deprivation. Ann Pediatr Res. 2023; 7(1): 1075..

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