Ann Med Med Res | Volume 3, Issue 1 | Research Article | Open Access

A Comparative Study on Salmonella Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg and S. Typhimurium of Poultry Origin from Southern Brazil

Gabriella Bassi das Neves1, Eduarda Pick2, Jessica Giuriatti2,3, Denise Nunes Araujo2,3 and Lenita Moura Stefani3,4*

1Graduate Program in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, UDESC-Lages, Brazil 2Department of Animal Science, UDESC-Chapeco, Brazil 3Graduate Program in Animal Science, UDESC-Chapeco, Brazil 4Department of Science and Technology, UDESC-Florianopolis, Brazil

*Correspondance to: Lenita Moura Stefani 

Fulltext PDF


Background: Salmonella spp. can cause gastrointestinal disease in animals and men, representing a significant public health issue worldwide. Poultry products are considered important sources of this bacterium. S. Heidelberg became lately one of the most prevalent isolate found in several countries. Hardly any information is available about the epidemiology and the resistance profile of this serovars. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the resistance profile of S. Heidelberg with S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolated from poultry. Materials, Methods & Results: Isolates of S. Heidelberg (54), S. Enteritidis (54), and S. Typhimurium (54) were submitted to disk diffusion test to antibiotics routinely used in veterinary and human medicine such as: Enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, gentamicin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol. In addition, the Multi-Drug Resistance Pattern (MDRP) and the Multiple-Drug Resistance Index (MDRI) were determined. The Chi-square (X2) test with 1% significance level was used to statistically evaluate the results by SAS. S. Heidelberg, S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis showed 18, 16.9 and 9.6% of resistance, respectively, indicating a higher degree of resistance for S. Heidelberg. The highest levels of resistance were observed for nalidixic acid in isolates of S. Heidelberg (67%), S. Typhimurium (65%) and S. Enteritidis (68.5%), as well as for tetracycline in isolates of S. Heidelberg (69%) and S. Typhimuirum (635). The gentamicin resistance was also high for S. Typhimurium (31.5%) followed by S. Heidelberg (7%). Of great importance to the poultry industry, our results show significant resistance to ceftiofur among S. Heidelberg isolates (32%), unlike S. Enteritidis (3.7%) and S. Typhimurium (1.9%). Only isolates of S. Heidelberg (9%) and S. Enteritidis (3.7%) were resistant to ceftriaxone, a common antibiotic used to treat children with salmonellosis. It is also important to point out a high resistance to the quinolone class, penicillin and cephalosporin’s, reaching levels of 68, 47 and 16%, respectively. MDRP indicated that the majority of the isolates showed resistance pattern C (10%) (gentamycin-nalidixic acid-tetracycline). MDRI analyses indicated that 22.8% of the isolates were multi-drug resistant’s. Among the three isolates, S. Heidelberg had a greater number of isolates multi-drug resistant (11.72%). The MDRI for the three isolates was 0.2. Considering each individual isolates, S. Heidelberg showed the greatest MDRI (0.25) ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. Discussion: The isolates of S. Heidelberg were resistant to almost all antibiotics tested and also showed multi-drug resistant profile, presenting the potential for horizontal transfer of resistance genes. Additionally, ceftiofur is an important antibiotic used in poultry and it can lead to crossresistance with ceftriaxone, used to treat salmonellosis in children. This scenario leads to the need for rational and judicious use of antimicrobials in poultry, especially ceftiofur as the only cephalosporin approved for use in food animals and special care for S. Heidelberg.


Antibiotic; Multi-drug resistance; Public health; Salmonella


das Neves GB, Pick E, Giuriatti J, Araujo DN, Stefani LM. A Comparative Study on Salmonella Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg and S. Typhimurium of Poultry Origin from Southern Brazil. Ann Med Medical Res. 2020;3:1027..

Subscribe to Our Newsletter