Ann Infertil Reprod Endocrinol | Volume 5, Issue 1 | Research Article | Open Access

Comparison of Embryo Transfer Techniques in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Cycles

Sarah Ligon1, Jose Roble2, Kimberly Chaffin3, Bruce Pier1 and Gary Levy4*

1Department of Gynecologic Surgery and Obstetrics, Madigan Army Medical Center, USA
2Department of Clinical Investigation, Tripler Army Medical Center, USA
3Department of Gynecologic Surgery and Obstetrics, Irwin Army Community Hospital, USA
4Department of Gynecologic Surgery and Obstetrics, Tripler Army Medical Center, USA

*Correspondance to: Gary Levy 

Fulltext PDF


Capsule: Different transfer techniques have been developed to optimize the embryo transfer process and maximize the probability of pregnancy after transfer. The purpose of this study is to comparethe Afterload (AL) and the immediate Post-Mock (PM) Embryo Transfer (ET) techniques.

Objective: To determine if the AL ET technique results in higher Ongoing Pregnancy Rate (OPR) compared to the immediate PM ET technique.

Design: Retrospective cohort.

Setting: Clinic-based data.

Patient(s): The study population included 251 women between the ages of 18 and 49 at the time of transfer who underwent an autologous, fresh, or cryopreserved ET between July 01st, 2013 and September 01st, 2016 at our academic center.

Intervention(s): Embryo transfer was performed with either the AL or the immediate PM transfer technique.

Main outcome measure: OPR (presence of fetal cardiac activity on a first trimester ultrasound).

Result(s): There was no significant difference in OPR between patients that underwent AL transfers and PM transfers (AL 51%, PM 57%; P=0.378). OPR for frozen embryo transfers was superior for AL transfers compared to PM transfers (AL 68%, PM 31%; P=0.005). OPR was superior with the PM technique for fresh embryo transfers (AL 43%, PM 63%; P=0.002). OPR decreased with increasing age in the AL cohort, but not in the PM cohort (P=0.004).

Conclusion: There appears to be no overall difference in OPR between AL and PM transfer technique. However, with vitrified embryos, the AL technique demonstrated a higher OPR, and with fresh embryos, the PM technique resulted in a superior OPR.


Embryo transfer; Technique; AL; IVF


Ligon S, Roble J, Chaffin K, Pier B, Levy G. Comparison of Embryo Transfer Techniques in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Cycles. Ann Infert Rep Endocrin. 2022, 5(1):1028..

Subscribe to Our Newsletter