Ann Infertil Reprod Endocrinol | Volume 4, Issue 1 | Research Article | Open Access

The Interaction Between the Female Reproductive System and Type 1 Diabetes

Coons A1* and Shubrook JH2

1Master of Science in Medical Health Science Program, Touro University California, USA
2Department Primary Care, Touro University California, USA

*Correspondance to: Coons A 

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Not much is known about how the female reproductive system and blood glucose (BG) control are related in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). Studies show that women frequently struggle to achieve glycemic control of their diabetes compared to men. The purpose of this review is to describe what is known about the interaction between the female reproductive system, ovarian sex hormones,
and blood glucose in people with T1D. This literature review includes data collected from the spring of 2018 to May 20th, 2021 and includes 69 papers. Data was found through search engines including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Google and was filtered by English only, humanonly studies, and the date range “since 2017” for studies on technology. T1D may put females at
risk of ovarian hyperandrogenism and other reproductive abnormalities. About 25% of women with type 1 diabetes have menstrual cycle irregularities. Among studies that compared glucose control during the different phases of the menstrual cycle, there is a consensus that for at least a subset of women with T1D, the luteal phase is a time of either increased blood glucose, increased
insulin dosage needs, and/or increased insulin resistance. More research should be done on this topic, including research to create individualized algorithms for determining insulin dosage adjustments based on personal hormone levels to be used during puberty, across the menstrual cycle, and during menopause.


Type 1 diabetes; Menstrual cycles; Reproductive abnormalities; Hyperandrogenism; Insulin resistance


Coons A, Shubrook JH. The Interaction Between the Female Reproductive System and Type 1 Diabetes. Ann Infert Rep Endocrin. 2021, 4(1): 1026..

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