Ann Community Med Public Health | Volume 1, Issue 2 | Short Communication | Open Access

An introspection into Behavioral Risk Factors and Clinical Risk Factors Leading to Non-Communicable Disease: A Cross Sectional Study

Nimmy Njattumkalayil John*, Stanley John Njattumkalayil, Christy Vargheese and Noel
Nelson Thomas

DM WIMS College of Pharmacy, India

*Correspondance to: Nimmy Njattumkalayil John 

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Background: The burden of non-communicable disease is escalating at an alarming rate. It is
mainly because of urbanization and economic improvement, which led to a sedentary lifestyle
like increased food consumption, tobacco-use, and decreased physical activity. The 4 main types
of non-communicable diseases are cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases
and diabetes. The risk factors for non-communicable disease are grouped into 3 categories:
Behavioral, metabolic and biochemical risk factors. Behavioral risk factors include tobacco use,
alcohol use, unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity. Metabolic risk factors include overweight,
obesity, diabetes and hypertension. Biochemical risk factors include hypercholesterolemia and
Aim: The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of noncommunicable
Materials: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the selected community during November
2020 to June 2021 among 1,500 study participants. Participants were selected randomly. A
predesigned, pretested, semi structured modified WHO STEPs questionnaire was used. Chi square
and Multiple Logistic Regression was done to understand association.
Results: Among the 1,500 participants the sample had 66.7% females and 33.3% males. Majority of
the study participants studied up to secondary school (44.7%) and 52% were not involved in any
occupation at the time of study. (26%) were tobacco smokers and (68%) were tobacco chewing.
(36%) were alcoholic. (89.3%) had exercised for <2.5 h. 68% were taking vegetables >10 times/week
and 88.7% were taking fruits <5 times/week. (26%) were overweight, (45.3%) had abdominal obesity
and 31% were hypertensive. Multiple logistic regression analysis showing factors associated with
male were more likely to have higher abdominal obesity and alcohol use >50 years, government
employee. With smoking, male have more chances of smoking and Age group of 20 to 30 years and
31 to 40 years.
Conclusion: The study showed a high burden of tobacco use and alcohol use among men, inactivity
and overweight among women and low fruit and vegetable consumption among both sexes.
Enforcement of laws against use of tobacco and alcohol should be made more stringent. More
information, education and communication activity regarding promotion of physical activity and
balanced diet.


NCD; WHO STEPS questionnaire; DALY; Risk factors


John NN, Njattumkalayil SJ, Vargheese C, Thomas NN. An introspection into Behavioral Risk Factors and Clinical Risk Factors Leading to Non-Communicable Disease: A Cross Sectional Study. Ann Community Med Public Health. 2021; 1(2): 1007..

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