Ann Clin Med Res | Volume 3, Issue 2 | Review Article | Open Access

A Review on Inflammatory and Coagulative Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Prognosis Prediction of COVID-19

Rosy Chikkala1 *, Naroju Shirisha2 and Aruna Tara Vennela Maharani Veljala3

1 Department of Molecular Biology, Promea Therapeutics Private Limited, Hyderabad, India 2 Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, University College of Science, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India 3 Department of Biotechnology, University College of Science-Saifabad, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India

*Correspondance to: Rosy Chikkala 

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As of December 14th, 2021, WHO had received reports of 270,031,622 confirmed cases of COVID-19 globally, with 5,310,502 mortalities, the COVID-19 epidemic had entered over 200 nations and afflicted over three million confirmed victims. Emerging Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, particularly those of concern, may affect the virus's transmissibility and pathogenicity, as well as the performance of diagnostic equipment and vaccination efficacy. Despite the fact that the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variation (B.1.617.2) appeared during India's second wave of illnesses, Delta variants have become prominent globally and are continually developing. The World Health Organization designated the variation B.1.1.529 as a variant of concern on November 26th, 2021, calling it Omicron, based on information that Omicron has multiple mutations that may alter its behavior. However, the route of transmission and severity of the Omicron variant remains unknown. To save as many lives as possible clinical assessment is vital, but laboratory indicators, or biomarkers, can provide additional, objective information that can have a significant impact on patient therapy. COVID-19 is a multisystem illness characterized by a diffuse systemic process that involves a complicated interaction of the immunological, inflammatory, and coagulative cascades. Studying what the virus causes to the body and how the body reacts to it has led to the discovery of many possible biomarkers. Biomarkers will play an important role in early identification, diagnosis, monitoring, and detection of issues, as well as patient treatment and disposal. Each of these aspects might have major implications for the healthcare system and administrative machinery, directly influencing patient care. We have studied several biomarkers to see if they predict clinical outcomes and correspond with the severity of COVID-19 infection. This review examines different groups of biomarkers - immunological, inflammatory, and coagulation - in terms of their pathophysiology, followed by the most recent evidence. The association of biomarkers with clinical and radiological characteristics, as well as viral load, temporal evolution, and therapeutic impact has to be evaluated in-depth. We discussed the following biomarkers in this article: The immunological inflammatory indicators include C-reactive protein, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Procalcitonin, Serum ferritin, Cytokine (interleukin-6), and lactate dehydrogenase. D-dimer, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), type 1 Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and Tissue-activating Plasminogen (tPA), prolonged Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin (aPTT), and platelet activation all these contribute to coagulative markers. All of these biomarkers were shown to be significantly greater in individuals with severe COVID-19 infection sequelae when compared to their non-severe counterparts. Of these all, except platelets exhibited a consistent decline in level.


COVID-19; Biomarkers; Immunological; Inflammatory; Coagulative biomarkers


Chikkala R, Shirisha N, Veljala ATVM. A Review on Inflammatory and Coagulative Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Prognosis Prediction of COVID-19. Ann Clin Med Res. 2022; 3(2): 1062..

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