Amechi NJ1, Odama RI2*, Agada SA3, Kenechukwu CO1 and Ezeh CO1
1Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Nigeria
2Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
3Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Health Science, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
Trachoma is a neglected tropical disease of the eye which is caused by the bacteria, Chlamydia trachomatis, and if untreated can lead to blindness. It can be transmitted through contact with ocular or nasal discharge of an infected person. WHO, in 2014, reported that 29 out of the 46 countries of the African region, are thought to be endemic and they account for 77% of the total population estimated to be living in endemic areas globally. Estimation of more than 110 million people reside in confirmed endemic areas and another 210 million reside in suspected endemic areas in up to 59 countries, excluding Brazil and India as there is lack of evidence of the disease in these countries. The prevalence rate globally has greatly reduced from 1.5 billion in 2002 to under 137 million in May 2020. Population based survey in Nigeria in different years showed a great prevalence of trachoma (TF and TT) in the Northern part of the country, and also a significant decrease as a result of the implementation of the SAFE strategy. Background: Trachoma is a neglected tropical ocular infection caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis, and if untreated can lead to blindness. It can be transmitted through contact with ocular or nasal discharge of an infected person. The SAFE strategy involving surgery, Antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement; has long been devised for the management and control of this disease. Trachoma has affected over 2.2 million people, of which estimated 1.2 million people are irreversibly blind. The prevalence rate globally has greatly reduced from 1.5 billion in 2002 to fewer than 137 million in May 2020. Population based survey in Nigeria in different years showed a great prevalence of trachoma (TF and TT) in the Northern part of the country. Methods: The British and Nigerian journal of ophthalmology, PubMed, the Scientific World Journal, trachoma atlas, WHO website, Cureus website, C.D.C website, Sightsavers website, American Academy of Ophthalmology, Pediatrics Infections Disease Journal, Journal of Clinical Microbiology were searched for relevant studies published for the past five decades on Trachoma in Nigeria. Papers on its prevalence, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, control measures and recent findings in Nigeria were included. Results: Collation of findings data from the past five decades on trachomatis infection in Nigeria has shown that the rate of infection has significantly reduced in some Northern part of the country due to trichiasis associated surgeries and use of antibiotics for Follicular inflammation. TF (0.2% and 9%); TT (0.2% and 8.0%) in Zamfara. TF (1.7% to 15.8% in 1 to 9 years of age); Tt (0% to 2.1%) common among women in Nasarrawa and Plateau state. TF (17.5%); TT (10.9% above 15 years) in Kano. TF (5.0% and 9.9%); TT (surgical services needed to obtain prevalence of <1 per 1000 total population in Niger State. TF (18.3%) TT (3.8%) in Yobe. TF (0.0% to 0.5%) in 13 local governments in Taraba. Conclusion: The results from this five decades wide review suggest that though a marked reduction in trachomatis infection in different parts of the country is observed, however there is still high prevalence (TF & TT) mostly in the Northern part of the country, which calls for adequate availability of resources for mapping project, which will serve as a guide for control; intense implementation of the SAFE strategy and every other hygienic mechanism possible, and orientation on this disease particularly in endemic communities in the North.
Incidence, Treatment, Trachoma Species, Nigeria, Five Decade
Amechi NJ, Odama RI, Agada SA, Kenechukwu CO, Ezeh CO. Scopus Review of the Incidence, Treatment and Control of the Spread of Trachoma Species in Nigeria in the Past 5 Decades. Am J Med Public Health. 2021; 2(4): 1026.