Clin Case Rep Int | Volume 6, Issue 1 | Research Article | Open Access

Pathological Aspects of Traumatic Brain Injury: Role of Biomarkers and Current Drug Therapy

Ayansh Kaushik and Shamsher Singh*
 

Department of Pharmacology, ISF College of Pharmacy, India

*Correspondance to: Shamsher Singh 

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Abstract

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the most common cause of illness and mortality worldwide, affecting millions of people. It is brought on by car accidents, falls, and assault. The primary insult of TBI occurs at impact, which leads to subsequent damage and a cascade of cellular processes. Other variables that contribute to subsequent TBI insult include excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, necrosis, mitochondrial malfunction, and lipid peroxidation. Secondary damage during TBI must be treated in order to avoid its development and additional neurodegeneration. However, no specific drug is available to prevent secondary insult in TBI, but alternative medications such as anti-inflammatory, diuretic, and corticosteroids are preferred. There are various diagnostic markers used to confirm the injury stage and its progressions such as HMGB1, Tenascin-c, S100B proteins, ghrelin, UCHL-1, and others. We investigated the causes of TBI, the prognostic relevance of biomarkers, and the current treatment strategies in this review.

Keywords:

Traumatic brain injury; Biomarkers; HMGB1; UCHL-1; Diagnostic techniques

Citation:

Kaushik A, Singh S. Pathological Aspects of Traumatic Brain Injury: Role of Biomarkers and Current Drug Therapy. Clin Case Rep Int. 2022; 6: 1420.

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