Review Article

Preventive Control Measures against Mosquito Borne Diseases

Charlie W Colquitt*
Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A & M University, USA


*Corresponding author: Charlie W Colquitt, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A & M University, USA


Published: 17 Feb, 2017
Cite this article as: Colquitt CW. Preventive Control Measures against Mosquito Borne Diseases. Ann Pharmacol Pharm. 2017; 2(6): 1034.

Abstract

International travel has increased dramatically to underdeveloped and exotic destinations. Many travelers visiting these areas will be unaware of the diseases transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes in other countries. Some mosquito-borne diseases are Zika virus, West Nile virus, malaria, dengue and chikungunya. Preventive measures against mosquito control are a public priority and should always be considered to reduce the spread of diseases. The CDC has travel advisory information to guide the public on non-pharmacological methods and pharmacological products (Table 1) to prevent mosquito bites. Travelers should be informed about mosquito bite prevention and aware of countries that are affected by these vector borne diseases. Travelers should also follow the CDC recommendations for preventive control measures found to be safe and effective.
Keywords: Mosquito borne; Preventive; Zika; West nile virus; Malaria; Dengue; Chikungunya; Transmitted; Repellent


Introduction

International travel has increased dramatically to underdeveloped and exotic destinations. International travelers will exceed 1 billion in less than 5 years [1]. Prior to departure for travel, it is widely recommended international travelers visit the Center for Disease Control (CDC) website for updated information or consult with a specialist in travel health. Many travelers visiting these areas will be unaware of the diseases transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes in other countries. Some mosquito-borne diseases are Zika virus, West Nile virus, malaria, dengue and chikungunya.
Mosquitoe-borne viruses
Zika is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile and Japanese encephalitis. The virus is transmitted by the Aedes species mosquito (an aggressive daytime biter). The virus has also been shown to be present in semen but the risk of sexual transmission is low [2]. No specific antiviral treatment is available and care is supportive, with symptoms usually resolving in 7 days. Preventive measures are the important key to limiting mosquito-borne diseases.
West Nile Virus (WNV)is a member of the Flaviviridae. WNV is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex mosquitoes; mosquitoes become infected feeding on birds, the most common host. This RNA virus can infect the central nervous system (CNS) of various hosts, causing severe neurologic disease. The incubation period for WNV is usually 2 to 14 days but can be as long as 21 days [3]. Currently, there is no specific treatment for WNV. Prevention is the best way to manage the virus, until effective treatment is available.
Malaria is a protozoan infection spread by the Anopheles mosquito vector in endemic areas. Of the four species of malaria, P. falciparum is the most serious because if unrecognized and untreated, it can be fatal [4]. The parasite grows in the bloodstream and can produce symptoms that develop anywhere from 6 to 8 days to several months after infection The choice of chemoprophylaxis depends on drug resistance patterns in the country being visited [5]. Generally prophylaxis starts 1 week prior to arrival and continues through 4 weeks after leaving the endemic area. Drugs used are atovaquone-proguanil, mefloquine and doxycycline. Chloroquine can also be used but is restricted to chloroquine-susceptible malaria in particular areas [5]. Preventive measures against mosquito control are a public priority and should always be considered to reduce the spread of malaria.
Dengue is the most significant mosquito-transmitted viral disease in terms of mortality. It is transmitted by Aedes aegypti (worldwide) and the Aedes albopictus (United States, Asia, Latin America and Caribbean) mosquitoes. Dengue fever, also known as the “break bone fever” is characterized by fever, rash and severe muscle/joint pain [6]. The clinical manifestations of fever and macular rash lasting 1 to 7 days, followed by decreased fever for 1 to 2 days. Dengue fever has no definitive treatment. The primary goal is supportive therapy to maintain fluid and electrolytes. Prevention control of mosquitoes by screening and insect repellents is the most effective measure against dengue.
Chikungunya is a flaviviral infection transmitted to humans by Aedes aegyptus and Aedes albopictus [7]. This mosquito borne disease may cause long-term arthralgias present 4 months after onset. Infected people experience mild leukopenia and less commonly thrombocytopenia. The Rh-negative population seem to be immune. Treatment is largely supportive with NSAIDs. Chloroquine may be useful for managing refractory arthritis. Monoclonal antibodies and prophylaxis with specific Chikungunya immunoglubins may be useful in certain populations. To date no vaccine is available. Preventive methods
The CDC has travel advisory information to guide the public on non-pharmacological methods and pharmacological products (Table 1) to prevent mosquito bites [8]. Specific precautions should be followed when applying insect repellent products (Table 2). Nonpharmacological methods include choosing a hotel or lodging with air conditioning or screens on windows and doors. Sleeping under a mosquito bed nets if outside or in a room not well screened. Wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants and Eliminating or avoiding standing water in or around your area of stay. Once a week, empty and scrub, turn over, cover, or throw out items that hold water, such as tires, buckets, planters, toys, pools. Birdbaths, flowerpots, or trash containers [9,10]. Check inside and outside your home.


Table 1

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Table 1
The CDC has travel advisory information to guide the public on non-pharmacological methods and pharmacological products to prevent mosquito bites.

Table 2

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Table 2
Specific precautions should be followed when applying insect repellent products.

Conclusion

Billions of people around the world, including Americans, are at risk from mosquito-borne viruses when travelling abroad. Not all mosquitoes are the same. Different mosquitoes spread different viruses and bite at different times of the day. Travelers should be informed about mosquito bite prevention and aware of countries that are affected by these vector borne diseases. Travelers should also follow the CDC recommendations for preventive control measures found to be safe and effective.


References

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