J Dent Oral Biol | Volume 5, Issue 2 | Research Article | Open Access

Mechanical Interlocking Capacity of Titanium with Respect to Surface Morphology and Topographical Parameters

Mitsunori Uno , Marc Hayashi, Ryotaro Ozawa , Juri Saruta , Hajime Ishigami and Takahiro Ogawa

Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, USA Section of Restorative Dentistry, Division of Constitutive and Regenerative Sciences, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, USA Department of Prosthodontics, Division of Oral Functional Science and Rehabilitation, Asahi University School of Dentistry, Gifu, Japan

*Correspondance to: mhayashi@dentistry.ucla.edu 

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Purpose: Osseointegration, which can be considered as the direct contact between living bone and implant surfaces, is critical to implant anchorage. This study was aimed at evaluating the mechanical interlocking at titanium interfaces (via. shear tests) with respect to the surface morphology, and for determining the primary contributing factors. Methods: Shear tests were performed on five different titanium surfaces, namely: 1) machined, 2) sandblasted with Al2 O3 , 3) acid-etched, 4) sandblasted with Al2 O3 and acid-etched, and 5) sandblasted with TiO2 and acid-etched. Further, commercially available bone cement was used as the mock bone. Results: Amongst the five tested surfaces, a four-fold difference in the interfacial shear strength was observed, with the machined surface and the sandblasted acid-etched surface exhibiting the lowest and the highest values, respectively. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the developed interfacial area ratio (Sdr) was the primary determining factor, which contributed to 60% of the interfacial shear strength; whereas, the average roughness (Sa), which is the most commonly used parameter in the field, contributed to only 12% of the interfacial shear strength. Conclusion: The results revealed that there were significant differences between the mechanical interlocking capacities of the titanium samples with various surface morphologies; this indicated that the anchorage of dental implants with the same bone-to-implant contact can differ significantly. The developed interfacial area ratio (Sdr) was therefore proposed as a reliable parameter for the determination of the interlocking capacity of titanium with bone


Titanium; Surface morphology; Spectroscopy; Mechanical interlocking


Uno M, Hayashi M, Ozawa R, Saruta J, Ishigami H, Ogawa T. Mechanical Interlocking Capacity of Titanium with Respect to Surface Morphology and Topographical Parameters. J Dent Oral Biol. 2020; 5(2): 1163. ISSN: 2475-5680.

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