Short Communication

Prevalence of Tobacco Related Cancers in India

Saranya Velusamy and Delfin Lovelina Francis*
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Tagore Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India


*Corresponding author: Delfin Lovelina Francis, Department of Public Health Dentistry, Tagore Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, India


Published: 10 Jul, 2017
Cite this article as: Velusamy S, Francis DL. Prevalence of Tobacco Related Cancers in India. J Dent Oral Biol. 2017; 2(9): 1060.


Abstract

Tobacco related cancers account for major share of all cancers. In India, tobacco consumption is responsible for half of all the cancers in men and a quarter of all cancers in women. India also has one of the highest rates of oral cancer in the world, partly attributed to high prevalence of tobacco chewing. This article deals with the data based from the cancer registries from various part of the country.


Introduction

The four leading non-communicable diseases, cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes, represent a leading threat to human health and development. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), these four diseases are the world’s biggest killers, causing 60% of all deaths globally and 80% in low- and middle-income countries. Up to 80% of heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes and over a third of cancers could be prevented by eliminating shared risk factors, mainly tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and the harmful use of alcohol. In fact, in 2011, tobacco control was identified as the “most urgent and immediate priority” to reduce non-communicable diseases [1]. Tobacco use is the single greatest preventable cause of death in the world today which kills 5.4 million people a year. If left unchecked, that number will increase to more than 8 million a year by 2030. Contains the highly addictive psychoactive ingredient, nicotine smokeless tobacco products are not a safe [2].
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. The Indian subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. In India, tobacco consumption is responsible for half of all the cancers in men and a quarter of all cancers in women, India also has one of the highest rates of oral cancer in the world, partly attributed to high prevalence of tobacco chewing. The World Health Organization predicts that tobacco deaths in India may exceed 1.5 million annually by 2020. In India, as in most low income countries, death in middle age is increasing in relative importance due to an increase in smoking related deaths [3].


Materials and Methods

A record based retrospective study was planned with the data from cancer registry of India to compare the four Metropolitan cities. The cancer registry of Indian council for medical research was used as data base. The variables were incidence, leading site, tobacco related cancer sand mortality rate from 1990-2014.


Results

Table 1 shows the incidence of cancer from 1990-2014 in India [4-11]. Table 2 shows the mortality rate of cancer from 1990-2014 [4-11]. Table 3 shows the tobacco related cancer in India from 2000-2014 [4-11].


Discussion

The present study gives the overall view of incidence rate, mortality rate, tobacco related cancer in four metropolitan cities of India. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph (IARC, 1987), sites of cancer that have been associated with the use of tobacco (TRC) include lip, tongue, mouth, pharynx (including oropharynx and hypo pharynx), esophagus, larynx, lung and urinary bladder. Recently, the IARC (IARC, 2004) states, that there was now sufficient evidence to establish a causal association between cigarette smoking and cancer of the nasal cavities and nasal sinuses, esophagus (adenocarcinoma), stomach, liver, kidney (renal cell carcinoma), uterine cervix and myeloid leukemia apart from the sites in the earlier monograph. Among incidence of cancer, tobacco related cancer accounts for about one fourth of the total cancer population. Thus tobacco use in any form (smoking and smokeless) can leads to cancer.


Table 1

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Table 1
The incidence of cancer in India from 1990-2014 [4-11].

Table 2

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Table 2
The mortality rate of cancer from 1990-2014 [4-11].

Table 3

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Table 3
The tobacco related cancer in India from 2000-2014 [4-11].

Conclusion

Oral health is an important part of everyone’s well-being. Despite the facts, that the harmful effects of tobacco chewing and smoking are widely known, many young people start smoking during adolescence, largely because they believe that smoking will boost their social acceptability and image. Recent shift in global tobacco consumption to developing countries indicate that an estimated 930 million of the world’s 1.1 billon in India alone. A better quality of life is a right of each individual rather than a luxury. In a diverse country like India reaching the goal “TOBACCO FREE INDIA” will definitely help to achieve the “HEALTH-FOR-ALL” status.


References

  1. Volchan E, David IA, Tavares G, Nascimento BM, Oliveira JM, Gleiser S, et al. Implicit motivational impact of pictorial health warning on cigarette packs. PLoS One. 2013;8(8):e72117.
  2. World Health Organization. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2008. The MPOWER package. Geneva: WHO; 2008. p.329.
  3. Rani M, Bonu S, Jha P, Nguyen SN, Jamjoum L. Tobacco use in India: prevalence and predictors of smoking and chewing in a national cross sectional household survey. Tob Control. 2003;12(4):e4.
  4. Consolidated report of population based cancer registries from 1997-1998.
  5. Consolidated report of population based cancer registries from 1999-2000.
  6. Consolidated report of population based cancer registries from 2001-2004.
  7. Consolidated report of population based cancer registries from 2004-2005.
  8. Consolidated report of population based cancer registries from 2006-2008.
  9. Consolidated report of population based cancer registries from 2009-2011.
  10. Consolidated report of population based cancer registries from 2012-2014.