Research Article

Modern Trends of the N Education in Midwives – New Methods in Practical Training in Midwifery

Štefánia Andraščíková* and Ľubica Rybárová
Department of Midwifery, Universityof Presov in Presov, Slovakia


*Corresponding author: Štefánia Andraščíková, Department of Midwifery, University of Presov in Presov, Partizánska, 108001 Presov, Slovakia


Published: 31 Mar, 2017
Cite this article as: Andraščíková Š, Rybárová Ľ. Modern Trends of the N Education in Midwives – New Methods in Practical Training in Midwifery. J Clin Obstet Gynecol Infertil. 2017; 1(1): 1005.

Abstract

Introduction: The paper focuses on the innovative teaching methods for clinical training in midwifery, suggests their advantages and disadvantages, and demonstrates their use in the teaching process by means of examples.The traditional teaching approach still persists and exploits standard methods of learning androte memorization, whereby a teacher explains the topic, and assigns students learning tasks. The teacher manages and controls the education – he is the object of the process, and students are only its subject. However, the current practice shows that it is necessary to alter the methods.
Objective: The main aim of this presentation is to show, how we should lead students to critical thinking,independent decision-making,use of prior knowledge, and active learning, and thuslimit obtaining knowledge by memorizing. An innovative approach means that students shouldacquire theirabilities, skills, and competences independently, and become able to search different ways and options while performing tasks and solving problems.
Respective Text: The educational process should be based on the teacher-student cooperation. Implementation of the new teaching methods such as cooperative learning (the jigsaw technique), practice-oriented workshops,interactive evaluation, group discussions, e.g. colloquia, mind maps, clinical case studies, problem-based teaching, role plays, and E-learning could help to improve the quality of the educational process in midwifery.It means that teachersshould offer tasks and issues to their students, but students should be main problem–solvers under their teachers’supervision. A significant characteristic feature of the new methods is educational activities without teachers’ directive attitudes including students’ independent work under supervision.
Outcome: It can be proved that modern methods introduced to the education of midwives make the learning process more effective and students acquire skills and knowledge which they can use in clinical practice. True-to-life conditions, model situations, issues of clinical practice used during teaching in laboratory conditions, analysing situations and phenomena that students can experience at a later time reliably simulate situations in the clinical practice. Thus, students obtain abilities to deal with them within the patient-health care provider encounter, search problems actively and independently, and solve them in their clinical practice.
Keywords: Midwifery; Nursing education; Teaching methods; Practical training; European Union; Project CCNURCA


Introduction

The traditional approach to education in midwifery was for a long time focused on rote learning and memorization. It was abandoned in favor of student-centered and task-based approaches to learning. Nevertheless, learning objectives are still achieved with closely managed teaching techniques. On the other hand, practice shows that we have to lead students to critical thinking and independence in their decision-making, and thus to eliminate obtaining their knowledge by memorizing. That is the reason why it is necessary to teach them how to think and to take a stand. An innovative approach means to obtain competencies and outcomes for oneself and to focus on “the final product” by a teacher-student collaborative learning and teaching process.
Implementation of the new practical teaching methods, simulation of the methods such as the Group strategy (Jigsaw strategy), Practical workshop, Interact evaluation, Group discussion, Mind mapping, Case studies, Problem/concept mapping, Role play, E-learning, and Problem-based learning in practical training could help improve quality of the educational process in midwifery. It means that a teacher should have a control over the education but students should bear a core load. Key characteristics of the small group learning by means of new and modern educational methods means students` engagement with learning activities without direct intervention by the teacher,at least for some of the time.
New teaching methods for theoretical and practical training are proved to have lots of benefits in the professional training of midwives. The realistic conditions, model situations and professional cases in simulation laboratories reflect real patient’s care in hospital, communication between a patient and hospital staff, discussions and analyses of all students’ activities.
Current education methods related to theoretical and practical training of midwives can help them get used torecognition and management of client/patient’s needsby the means of simulated cases.


Figure 1

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Figure 1
Training in nursing with pediatric simulator in laboratory.

Figure 2

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Figure 2
Training in nursing with adult simulator in laboratory.

New Training Methods in Midwifery

Practical workshop
The practical workshop is a form of educational activity in which the lecturer/assistant prepares topics, objectives, content, steps of the educational process and a variety of techniques (brainstorming, feedback) for students to use their own knowledge and experience to acquire skills that will use in practice. Lecturer/assistant during the workshop leads, organizes, advises, supervises and helps students with their activities during this process. The goal of practical workshop is to train and strengthen already acquired knowledge and skills. The output of the workshop is to fulfill the objectives and targets. The workshop does not have a theoretical component, it is assumed that the student has a theoretical basis and is able to transfer theoretical knowledge into practical skills and active cooperation is necessary among the participants of the workshop. The workshop can be prepared on the basis of various scientific and professional topics. It is recommended to prepare for approximately 60 min (one theme/topic) with an optimal number of 25 participants[1].
Case studies
Case study isadescriptionof emergency/interestingclinical case/disease.It is used asa form ofpresentation, particularly in somebiomedicalandsocial sciences.The topic of the caseis adeliberate choice. It may beorientedon the typicalbutalso the specific, unique, individual andsmall-occurring cases.The role ofcase studiesis the description ofthe case based on deep, intensive analysisanddetailedinterpretationof the case. Case studies have potential for measuring application of knowledge, analysis, problem-solving and evaluative skills. This method allows students to apply theory to practical situations. Marking criteria help re-grading and feedback. Case study andits scopeis individual anddepends on theparticular case. It is recommended to prepare for approximately 30 min – 45 min (one clinical case/disease) with an optimal number of 3-4 participants [2-4].
Training with simulator mannequins in the laboratories
Learning with simulator mannequins in nursing is the combination of interactive simulations of real-life clinical scenarios for the purpose of nursing training, education and assessment. This method uses mannequin simulations. Students use simulation modelsfor training the nursing proceduresand skillsfirstly inthe simulationlaboratory (Figure 1 and 2). Then they can work in hospital with patients and they originally used to support active learning strategies in self-directed learning and problem based learning.
Nursing process
Nursing processisa systematic and rationalmethod, which plans nursing intervention andprovidesnursing care. The aimof this methodis to evaluate thepatient's medical condition, actual and potentialhealth problems, the level of health care, makea planto assess thepatient's needsandprovidespecific nursinginterventionsto meet those needs. Nursing processhasfive phases. This processconsists of the followingphases:assessing thehealth problemsof the patient,diagnosis, interventionplanning, implementationand evaluation ofinterventionsprovided bynursing care [5,6].
Mind mapping
Mapping makes the use of graphics and designs to understand complex relationships and possible outcomes of these relationships. In a nursing environment, it can help students connect conditions with treatments and potential side effects. Mind mapping (Figure 3) joins the critical thinking, case-based learning and press students to make a visual scheme how to solve the patient’s problem. Concept and problem mapping can develop the ability to see problems in their minds and improve creative thinking ability of students. Nursing practice often calls for innovative thinking from practitioners and concept mapping can train students to meet this requirement. Mapping can be applied with equal effectiveness to both - individuals and groups. Concept maps are graphical tools for organizing and representing knowledge in networks of concepts and linking statements about a problem or subject [7].
Concept maps include concepts, usually enclosed in circles or boxes of some type and relationships between concepts or propositions, indicated by a connecting line and linking words between concepts.
Problem-based learning
Principles of problem based-learning (PBL) are basedon the fact thatstudentsare actively participating in planning, organizing and evaluating theproblem solving process. PBL requires students to solve authentic, real-life open-ended problems with as many solutions as possible.
Objectives of the problem-based learning process areknowledge (theoretical and clinical), skills (scientific reasoning, critical appraisal, information literacy, self-directed lifelong learning) and attitudes (value of teamwork, interpersonal skills, importance of psycho-social issues [8].
Assessment methods chosen at program and module level of project CCNURCA should enable students to demonstrate their achievement of learning outcomes, and enable them to be judged against relevant assessment criteria. These links should also be made clear to students. The assessment should focus on the principal learning outcomes and recognize in an explicit manner where learning outcomes are being assessed formatively rather than summative.


Figure 3

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Figure 3
Mind mapping for critical thinking in nursing [10].

Results

New teaching methods for practical training are proved to have lots of benefits in the professional training of nurses. The realistic conditions in simulation laboratories are reflecting real hospital and patient’s care, communication with patient and hospital staff, discussion and analysis of all students’ activities.
Control of practical training and evaluation of academic results
Evaluation of academic results of the student within the academic subject is carried out: through continuous control of academic results during the period of study (e.g., presentation of nursing process, evaluation of practical workshop) and by practical exam for the given period of study. The teacher gives a grade for the completion of the subject. The grade expresses the quality of acquired knowledge and practical skills in accordance with the results of learning on the subject information sheet. The different approaches to learning have all been included in the history of curriculum design and implementation, for example cognitive, behavioral, constructivist and post-modern approaches to nursing and nurse education.
As per Law no. 455/2012 Coll. the full-time, or daily, form of study from the point of view of time corresponds to student work of 1500-1800 hours per academic year, known as the demand on the student. It consists of contact hours (e.g., attendance at lectures, seminars, clinical practice) and non-contact hours (e.g., self-study and independent creative activities). The student must fulfill the requirements to gain credits from a subject in the following manners: completed (C), continuous assessment (CA), examination (X) or a state exam (SX). The demands on the student also vary in terms of the final assessment. Training activities can be performedby attendance, distance learning or by combined method [9].
Credits are allocated to entire qualifications or study programs, as well as their educational components (such as modules, courses, placements, dissertation work, practice and laboratory work). Number of credits is credited for the individual components, based on their weight in relation to the workload, which students must complete, in a formal context to achieve the learning outcomes.


Conclusion

Modern and effective teaching methods in midwifery education, which are donein accordance with proclaimed goals of study program in midwifery, profile of graduate, profile of midwife and final midwives’ competencies are necessary for final reform and for creation of professionalwithfull of appropriate knowledge and skills.
Act of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic No. 455/2012 Coll. which amends and supplements Act No. 131/2002 Coll. on Higher Education and on Amendments and Supplements of Certain Acts as amended by later regulations.


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