Oludare Temitope Osuntokun* and Pius John Ajiga
Department of Microbiology, Adekunle Ajasin University, NigeriaFulltext PDF
Malaria/Typhoid is one of the most killing diseases in the world particularly in tropical countries and is worst in Africa. The study was conducted to determine the anti-malaria/anti-typhoid potentials of graded doses coupled with the toxicological and histopathological effect of synergistic aqueous and ethanolic extract of Alstonia boonei stem bark (Epo ahun) and fruit of Capsicum frutescens in Swiss albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei NK 65 and Salmonella typhi (ATCC 35723). The stem bark and fruit of Alstonia boonei and fruit of Capsicum frutescens were screened for the presence of some phytochemicals. Twenty-five Swiss Albino mice were divided into 5 groups of 5 mice each. The animals were inoculated with the parasite and Salmonella typhi (ATCC 35723) at the beginning of the experiment (day 10). Three hours after inoculation (infestation 0 groups 1-3) mice were respectively given 100 mg, 200 mg, and 400 mg combined extract/kg body weight dose intraperitoneally. Group 4 animals that serve as control were given 5 mg Chloroquine/kg body weight while the group 5 animals (negative control) were given 0.2 ml distilled water. The treatment was given ones per day for four days. On the 5th day, the animal caudal and vein samples were taken and transferred into a slide making a thin film from each mouse. The percentage chemo-suppressive activity on early malaria and typhoid infection in mice of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg body weight dose was found to be 81, 85, 75 respectively for ethanolic extract and 57%, 78%, and 80% respectively for aqueous extract this is substantial when compared to 97% chemo suppressive effect produced by 5 mg/kg body weight of Chloroquine/Ciprofloxacin. The phytochemical screening of the combined extract reveals the presence of Saponins, Flavonoids, Terpenes, Alkaloids, Glycosides, Terpenoids while anthroquinones and acid compounds were found absent. The acute toxicity (LD50) of the combined extract was estimated to be 3162 mg kg-1 b.wt. The above result showed that the combined extract of stem bark of Alstonia boonie and fruit of Capsicum frutescens possesses the antiplasmodial and anti-typhoid property. The toxicology and histopathological study of the synergistic extract of Alstonia boonei and Fruit of Capsicum frutescens were studied viewing the liver enzymes and kidney function on slide after staining. The results from these findings show an increase in the serum Alanine Aminotransaminase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransaminase (AST), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Bilirubin, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and Creatinine level of the liver and kidney of the infected Swiss Albino Mice. This dose-dependent increase is an indication of toxicity of the extract which calls for moderate use of the extract.
Anti-Malaria/Anti-Typhoid; Toxicological assessment; Synergistic extract alstonia boonie; Capsicum frutescens; Swiss albino mice
Osuntokun OT, Ajiga PJ. Toxicological Assessment of Synergistic Efficacy of Alstonia boonei & Capacium frutescens Extract on Plasmodium berghei (NK 65)/Salmonella typhi (ATCC 35723) Infected Swiss Albino Mice. Ann Pharmacol Pharm. 2020;5(4):1187.