Ann Pediatr Res | Volume 5, Issue 2 | Case Report | Open Access

A Phenomenal Case Report of an Autoimmune Thyroiditis Masquerading Symptomatic Pericardial Effusion in a Child with Down’s Syndrome

Betsy Mathew* and Ananta Jois

Department of Pediatric Critical Care, GG Hospital, India

*Correspondance to: Betsy Mathew 

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Abstract

Hypothyroidism is a common endocrinal disorder with multi-organ involvement including cardiovascular system. Although small Pericardial Effusion (PE) is a common clinical finding but moderate to massive PE with or without tamponade is rare. Incidence of hypothyroidism in patients with Down's syndrome is high, but diagnosis is often delayed or missed for lack of specific clinical clues. In a study done on congenital hypothyroidism in neonates with Down's syndrome, a prevalence of 0.12% was found. Hashimoto Thyroiditis (HT)/Autoimmune thyroiditis (secondary hypothyroidism) is the most frequent cause of acquired hypothyroidism in pediatric age groups. HT is usually diagnosed in adolescents, especially females. It is rare in infants and toddlers with cardiac involvement, including pericardial effusion that is seen in 10% to 30% of adult HT cases. Pericardial effusions have been reported in 50% to 73% of pediatric patients with hypothyroidism in various series but none of these describes the symptomatic pericardial effusions or cardiac tamponade.

Keywords:

Thyroiditis; Down's syndrome; Hypothyroidism; Hashimoto thyroiditis

Citation:

Mathew B, Jois A. A Phenomenal Case Report of an Autoimmune Thyroiditis Masquerading Symptomatic Pericardial Effusion in a Child with Down’s Syndrome. Ann Pediatr Res. 2021;5(2):1059..

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