J Pediatr Res | Volume 4, Issue 3 | Case Report | Open Access

A Rare Cause of Interstitial Lung Disease in an Infant Patient: Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia

Tahir Tok1*, Muhammmed Burak Selver1, Amet Yasin Guney1 and Sevgi Pekcan2

1Department of Pediatrics, Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey 2Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Necmettin Erbakan University, Turkey

*Correspondance to: Tahir Tok 

Fulltext PDF


Infancy Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia (NEHI), previously known as persistent tachypnea in infancy, is a rare lung disease first described in 2005. Etiology is unknown, but genetic mechanisms are said to play a role. NEHI typically occurs in healthy maid infants during the first months of life with persistent tachypnea, wheezing and hypoxemia. In addition to these chronic clinical features; hyperinflation as a characteristic chest Computed Tomography (CT) finding, at right middle lobe and medial lingula ground glass opacity findings and lung biopsy findings showing the prominence of bombesin-positive neuroendocrine cells in the distal airways. NEHI can be diagnosed based on High-Resolution CT (HRCT) and clinical findings. Lung biopsy may still be needed if the clinical diagnosis still does not improve. Lung symptoms and hypoxemia tend to improve over time, but may last for years. The actual incidence and prevalence is still unknown. We present a 3-month-old case diagnosed as NEHI by clinical and tomography.


Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia; Interstitial lung disease; Children


Tok T, Selver MB, Guney AY, Pekcan S. A Rare Cause of Interstitial Lung Disease in an Infant Patient: Neuroendocrine Cell Hyperplasia. Ann Pediatr Res. 2020;4(3):1039..

Subscribe to Our Newsletter