Promise N1*, Ugwuezumba PC2, Ekweogu CN1, Etteh CC1, Chukwuemeka OG3, Ngwu EE2 and Emengaha FC1
1Department of Medical Biochemistry, Imo State University, Nigeria
2Department of Human Physiology, Imo State University, Nigeria
3Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Nigeria
This study aimed at assessing the effect of ethanol root and stem extracts of Dennettia tripetala on kidney function indices in rats administered thermoxidized palm oil. Thirty apparently healthy wistar rats weighing between 150 g to 180 g were divided into six equal groups of 5 rats each and used for the study. Group 1 served as the positive control while Group 2 animals which received 1 ml of thermoxidized palm oil daily served as the negative control. Group 3 received 1 ml of thermoxidized palm oil + 50 mg/kg of the root extract daily. Group 4 received 1 ml of thermoxidized palm oil + 50 mg/kg of the stem extract daily. Group 5 was given 1 ml of thermoxidized palm oil + 100 mg/ kg of the root extract daily while group 6 received 1 ml of thermoxidized palm oil + 100 mg/kg of the stem extract. The treatment of the rats were done by oral intubation and lasted for 21 days. Standard analytical methods were used to determine renal function indices including serum urea, creatinine and electrolyte (Na+, K+, Cl- and H2CO3 -) levels. Treatment of the animals with 50 mg/ kg of both root and stem extracts of D. tripetala led to a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the levels of urea (48.89 ± 1.78; 52.27 ± 1.51) and creatinine (0.94 ± 0.05; 0.89 ± 0.04) when compared with the negative control (74.42 ± 2.34 and 2.08 ± 0.08 respectively). There was, however, no significant change (p>0.05) in the levels of urea and creatinine in animals treated with 100 mg/kg of both stem and root extracts when compared with group 2 animals. Results showed a statistically significant change in the levels of Na+, K+, HCO3 - and Cl- in experimental rats that received 100 mg/kg of root and stem extracts of D. tripetala when compared with group 2 animals. In all the parameters measured (urea, creatinine, Na+, K+, HCO3 - and Cl-), group 2 animals (negative control) showed a significant change (74.42 ± 2.34; 2.08 ± 0.08; 136.16 ± 1.67; 2.50 ± 0.27; 36.20 ± 0.89; 110.40 ± 0.83) when compared with group 1 animals (37.20 ± 2.04; 0.82 ± 0.09; 152.60 ± 1.14; 4.46 ± 0.08; 25.40 ± 0.83; 95.20 ± 1.34). In conclusion, root and stem extracts of D. tripetala have those dependent negative effects on kidney function indices, may induce glomerular and tubular dysfunction of the nephron and contribute to renal failure. Herbal preparations of D tripetala should therefore be taken with proper medical advice and monitoring.
Dennettia tripetala; Thermoxidized palm oil; Wistar rat; kidney function indices; Electrolytes
Promise N, Ugwuezumba PC, Ekweogu CN, Etteh CC, Chukwuemeka OG, Ngwu EE, et al. Nephrotoxic Potential of Ethanol Root and Stem Extracts of Dennettia Tripetala on Wistar Rats Administered Thermoxidized Palm Oil. Ann Clin Toxicol. 2019; 2(3): 1024..